Inside the Trump-Kim summit collapse


Though Mr Donald Trump is hardly the first President to have sensitive diplomatic entreaties fall short, his played out in full public view, like a soap opera narrated daily from the Oval Office.
Though Mr Donald Trump is hardly the first President to have sensitive diplomatic entreaties fall short, his played out in full public view, like a soap opera narrated daily from the Oval Office.PHOTO: AFP

WASHINGTON (WASHINGTON POST) - The historic nuclear disarmament summit between President Donald Trump and North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un - the one that Mr Trump thought might earn him the Nobel Peace Prize - crumbled nearly as quickly as it came together, in a sudden and startling decision on Thursday morning (May 24) by the American President.

Inside the White House residence, the first alarm sounded at about 10pm on Wednesday when National Security Adviser John Bolton told Mr Trump about North Korea's public statement threatening a "nuclear-to-nuclear showdown" and mocking Vice-President Mike Pence as a "political dummy".

Mr Trump was dismayed by Pyongyang's bellicose rhetoric, the same theatrics Mr Trump often deploys against his adversaries.

Mr Bolton advised that the threatening language was a very bad sign, and the President told advisers he was concerned Mr Kim was manoeuvring to back out of the summit and make Americans look like desperate suitors, according to a person familiar with the conversations.

So Mr Trump called it off first.

The result was a crushing disappointment for a President eager to achieve a peace accord with North Korea that his recent predecessors had failed to reach.

In a snap decision in early March, Mr Trump had agreed to face-to-face talks with Mr Kim, and in the weeks that followed, he was optimistic - even boastful - about what would happen when the two men met June 12 in Singapore.

 
 
 
 

"It was a legitimate disappointment for him, even though he's been half-warned it was not going to happen," said Mr Rudy Giuliani, Mr Trump's personal attorney, who visited the President on Wednesday in New York.

Mr Trump debated summit locations and seriously considered meeting Mr Kim along the demilitarised zone between North and South Korea.

He imagined the pageantry. The White House Communications Agency manufactured a limited run of red, white and blue challenge coins embossed with Mr Trump's silver visage facing off against Mr Kim's.

He even mused about winning the Nobel Peace Prize. This was to be the ultimate Trump production.

But the President's imagination collided with the reality of negotiations with a rogue and mistrusted regime.

The announcement of the summit and its cancellation were both based on gut decisions by Mr Trump, and had their origins in a visit by South Korean national security adviser Chung Eui Yong to Washington on March 8. Mr Chung brought a message from Mr Kim about his readiness to discuss denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula with Mr Trump. 

Mr Trump, convinced that his campaign of “maximum pressure” had forced North Korea to the negotiating table, asked Mr Chung to make a statement to the press outside the White House that he was ready to have a dialogue, reported The Guardian. 

But it appears that Mr Trump was not clear on what Pyongyang’s interpretation of “denuclearisation” meant. For Mr Kim, it implied lengthy negotiations in which North Korea would be treated as a nuclear power and equal by the US. To Mr Trump, it meant unilateral disarmament.

The gap in perceptions was papered over by Mr Chung and South Korean President Moon Jae In, who heaped praise on Mr Trump as a wise world leader destined to make history as they sought to bolster Seoul’s peace agenda. 

Though Mr Trump is hardly the first President to have sensitive diplomatic entreaties fall short, his played out in full public view, like a soap opera narrated daily from the Oval Office.

Mr Tony Schwartz, who co-authored The Art of the Deal with Mr Trump, said the President scotched the summit to save his ego.

"Trump has a morbid fear of being humiliated and shamed," Mr Schwartz said. "This is showing who's the biggest and the strongest, so he is exquisitely sensitive to the possibility that he would end up looking weak and small. There is nothing more unacceptable to Trump than that."

According to a White House official, Mr Trump was briefed on North Korea’s statement on Wednesday night, “took it in stride and slept on it.”

As dawn broke on Thursday, senior US officials congregated in the West Wing, and by 7am, they were discussing options over the phone with Mr Trump, who was still in his private chambers. The President arrived at a swift decision to cancel the summit. 

He drafted his letter to Mr Kim on Thursday morning as he consulted with top aides, including Mr Bolton, Mr Pompeo and Mr Pence, reported CNN. 

A cadre of advisers - including Mr Bolton, Chief of Staff John Kelly, press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, vice presidential Chief of Staff Nick Ayers, Deputy Chief of Staff Joe Hagin and deputy national security adviser Mira Ricardel - scurried between Mr Ayers', General Kelly's and Mr Bolton's offices, finalising their plan to break Mr Trump's news.

Mr Trump dictated a stern yet wistful personal letter to Mr Kim blaming him for "the tremendous anger and open hostility displayed in your most recent statement".

The note bore Trumpian hallmarks, including flattering the recipient (he addressed a dictator who has kidnapped Americans and killed his own citizens as "His Excellency") and boasting about the size of his arsenal.

"You talk about your nuclear capabilities, but ours are so massive and powerful that I pray to God they will never have to be used," Mr Trump wrote.

This behind-the-scenes account of Mr Trump's decision to cancel the Singapore summit is based on interviews with seven administration officials, many of whom spoke on the condition of anonymity to candidly discuss a sensitive matter.

In a tweet, Mr Trump revealed his chagrin.

“Sadly, I was forced to cancel the Summit Meeting in Singapore with Kim Jung Un,” he wrote, misspelling Mr Kim’s name.

Mr Trump's move caught South Korea and other allies off guard - in part by design, aides said.

The President feared the news would leak out if foreign counterparts were alerted, though some in the White House were concerned about insulting allies.

Foreign diplomats got word that the summit was off at the same time as the general public, shortly before 10am, when the White House sent a copy of Mr Trump's letter to reporters.

At South Korea's presidential Blue House, officials were blindsided.

President Moon had just returned home from Washington, where he met with Mr Trump on Tuesday, and Mr Moon's national security adviser recently put the chance of the summit happening at 99.9 per cent.

Reached shortly after Mr Trump's letter was released, Blue House spokesman Kim Eui Kyeom said, "We are attempting to make sense of what, precisely, President Trump means."

Mr Trump made his announcement while several American journalists were in North Korea at the invitation of Mr Kim's government to witness the apparent destruction of a nuclear test site.

In 2009, North Korean soldiers detained two American journalists, Ms Euna Lee and Ms Laura Ling, who were charged with illegal entry and held prisoner for five months.

CNN correspondent Will Ripley, who was reporting from the test site this week, recalled being the one to read Mr Trump's letter to North Korean officials.

"There was just a real sense of shock," Mr Ripley reported on Thursday. "Immediately, they got up and left and are now on the phone kind of relaying the news up to the top."

The moment, Mr Ripley added, was "very awkward and uncomfortable".

Mr Trump's final decision was abrupt, but doubts had been growing for several days, with indications all week that the North Koreans were operating in bad faith.

The President's tone turned somewhat sceptical.

"We're going to see what happens," he told reporters on Wednesday. "It could very well happen. But whatever it is, it is."

His eagerness to strike a historic deal was on display during an overnight ceremony earlier this month to welcome three American prisoners released by North Korea. Asked why he believed Mr Kim was ready to negotiate, the President said: “I really think he wants to do something and bring the country into the real world. I think that we’ll have a success. I think this will be a very big success.”

Even after North Korea’s belligerent statements, Mr Trump made no secret of his hopes of salvaging the summit, indicating he was willing to dial back his stance in trade negotiations with China if Beijing would support him on the North Korean front. 

“When I’m thinking about trade - you know, I read you folks and you say, ‘Well, why does he’ - there’s a much bigger picture that I have in mind,” Mr Trump said. “I’m also thinking about what they’re doing to help us with peace with North Korea. That’s a very important element. So we’ll see how it all works out.”

Mr Kim and his deputies had blasted Mr Bolton for comments he made on April 29 on CBS News in which he said the administration would try to emulate the "Libya model" from 2003 and 2004, in which Muammar Gaddafi relinquished his regime's nuclear weapons programme.

The North Koreans believe that agreement led to Gaddafi's downfall and death in 2011, and a top Kim aide blasted Mr Bolton, whom they generally considered antagonistic from his many years as a foreign policy hawk.

Mr Trump last week sought to reassure Mr Kim that he would remain in power under any nuclear deal with the United States, contradicting Mr Bolton by saying, "The Libya model isn't the model that we have."

But on Monday, Mr Pence said in an interview with Fox News that "the Libyan model" will apply to North Korea if Mr Kim does not agree to denuclearise.

Aides said Mr Pence's comments were not an effort to sabotage the deal, saying that he and Mr Trump spoke before the Fox interview and that the Vice-President reiterated points Mr Trump had previously made.

Still, Mr Pence's Libya analogy struck a nerve in Pyongyang.

When North Korea's government unleashed on its Wednesday torrent of invective against the Trump administration, an aide close to Mr Kim called Mr Pence a "political dummy" who made "ignorant and stupid remarks".

Meanwhile, US officials had grown concerned that Mr Kim's deputies had gone silent on preparations for the summit.

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo - who travelled twice to North Korea and was regarded inside the Trump administration as the good cop to Mr Bolton's enforcer - blamed Pyongyang for the breakdown in communication in recent days.

The United States "received no response to our inquiries from them", Mr Pompeo told a Senate panel on Thursday. "We got a lot of dial tones."

US officials were further frustrated last week when a senior North Korean delegation failed to show up for a planning meeting in Singapore, leaving a team led by Mr Hagin in the island country with little to do.

"They waited, and they waited," a senior White House official said. "The North Koreans never showed up. The North Koreans didn't tell us anything. They simply stood us up."

Mr Trump suspected that Chinese President Xi Jinping may have had something to do with Mr Kim's turnabout, musing this week about their meeting this month.

"When Kim Jong Un had the meeting with President Xi, in China, the second meeting... I think there was a little change in attitude from Kim Jong Un," Mr Trump said on Tuesday, with Mr Moon at his side.

"I don't like that. I don't like it from the standpoint of China. Now, I hope that's not true, because I have a great relationship with President Xi. He's a friend of mine. He likes me. I like him."

US officials interpreted the hardline statements from Pyongyang as reflecting Mr Kim’s concerns over the summit, including his transport options to Singapore.

His fleet of Soviet-era aircraft is untested on long journeys, and it was unclear if they could make the 9,656km round trip to Singapore. 

Mr Kim also reportedly harboured fears of being deposed if he left North Korea for a long time. 

Ms Evelyn Farkas, a former Obama administration national security official who has worked on North Korea issues, said Mr Trump was naive.

"He fails to understand that while he might have a good rapport with a head of state, that head of state will act based on his national interests and not based on his personal feelings," Ms Farkas said.

Some Trump administration officials worried about "losing the upper hand" if Mr Kim strung Mr Trump along and then bailed on the meeting, according to a second senior White House official.

Aides began telling Mr Trump last week that he should be prepared for the summit not to happen and that it might take several tries before he actually meets Mr Kim face-to-face.

Tempering the President's enthusiasm was partially driven by Mr Bolton, as well as by some congressional allies.

"Here's what I told the President: North Koreans are going to try to wait you out," Senator Lindsey Graham, a South Carolina Republican, said.

"They're going to nickel and dime you. They're going to delay. They're going to obfuscate. They are going to make commitments and pull them back."

Despite the warning signs, Mr Trump remained hopeful that the summit would go on as he had imagined.

Aboard Air Force One on Wednesday, Mr Trump told passengers that he believed Mr Kim was ready to make a deal and that enough "screws" had been put on him to bring him to the negotiating table in Singapore, according to Representative Peter King, a New York Republican, who flew with Mr Trump.

"If I had to bet right now, he had no intention of calling it off," Mr King said. "He was throwing out different ideas - nothing dramatic, but obviously thinking through what they were going to be doing over the next few days to get ready and make plans for the summit."

For Mr Trump, the cancellation brings one silver lining - at least in the eyes of his lawyer.

Mr Giuliani said the President would now be free to focus on whether to sit for an interview with Special Counsel Robert Mueller's team in the Russia investigation.

Still, Mr Giuliani added, he believes Mr Trump is more likely to eventually sit down across from Mr Kim than Mr Mueller.

"I think it is more inevitable than a Mueller interview," Mr Giuliani said. "At least they're not going to try to trap him into Korean perjury."