NEW YORK (AFP) - Top musicians from Bruce Springsteen to Beyonce to Madonna are rallying behind Mrs Hillary Clinton in the countdown to Tuesday's (Nov 8) election, adding A-list star power to a massive get-out-the-vote operation.
Springsteen, one of the biggest concert attractions in the rock universe, warmed up an election eve rally on Monday in Philadelphia, where he hailed Mrs Clinton for her "vision of an America where everyone counts".
"Let's all do our part so we can look back on 2016 and say we stood with Hillary Clinton on the right side of history," he told the roughly 40,000 people assembled near Independence Hall.
Springsteen, who has long championed the US working class in song but avoided overt politics until 2004, charged that Republican candidate Donald Trump would "prioritise his own interests and ego before American democracy itself".
The rally was the largest ever in Mrs Clinton's bid to be America's first woman president.
Springsteen was joined by fellow rocker Jon Bon Jovi, as well as President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle.
Bon Jovi was later flying with Mrs Clinton to another critical state, North Carolina, for a midnight rally with Lady Gaga.
Madonna, meanwhile, roused Clinton backers in New York with a surprise outdoor concert, taking out an acoustic guitar to perform hits including Express Yourself.
"As far as I'm concerned, we still live in an extremely chauvinistic, sexist, misogynist country and that is why Hillary Clinton needs to be president," said Madonna, sporting a knit cap in the design of the US flag.
Madonna voiced dread over the prospect of a Trump presidency, asking the crowd in Washington Square: "Do we want to be the laughing stock of the planet?"
While US pop stars have long leaned to the left, the tilt towards Mrs Clinton is unprecedented in a modern election, with Mr Trump virtually shunned by the music world.
Mr Trump spent the last days of his campaign repeatedly denouncing pop superstar Beyonce and her rap mogul husband Jay Z, who played for Mrs Clinton on Friday in Ohio.
Without referring to Mr Trump by name, Jay Z had said the real estate tycoon was "not an evolved soul" and had weakened the United States through divisive remarks.
Mr Trump hit back by claiming to have drawn bigger crowds. He took aim at language by Jay Z, who like many rappers frequently uses profanity and did not edit his lyrics for the Clinton rally.
"Isn't it amazing that... Jay Z and Beyonce use filthy language in the songs, using words that if I ever said those words, it would be the reinstitution of the electric chair, right?" Mr Trump told a rally in Florida.
Despite his concern about profanity, one of his few musical backers, hard rocker Ted Nugent, also used unprintable words when he introduced the Republican at a rally on Sunday in Michigan.
Nugent, who has previously called for the death of Mrs Clinton and Mr Obama, grabbed his crotch on stage and quipped: "I've got your blue state right here, black and blue." He was referring to the colour associated with the Democratic Party.
Mr Trump, who has described undocumented Mexican immigrants as "rapists" and boasted of forcing himself on women, has faced complaints from a long list of stars including the Rolling Stones and Adele for playing their songs at rallies.
Mr Trump, a former reality television host, nonetheless has several backers in Hollywood, notably Clint Eastwood.
Celebrity entertainers invariably ensure large crowds at a point in the campaign when weak turnout would be optically disastrous.
But big-name performances also allow campaigns to collect contact details for sympathetic voters - crucial in the polarised country where elections increasingly are won by mobilising turnout rather than persuading the undecided.
Other prominent artists who have performed for Mrs Clinton include Katy Perry - whose hit Roar has appeared in commercials - as well as Jennifer Lopez, Pharrell Williams and Stevie Wonder.
Chance the Rapper on Monday led droves of young voters to the polls in his hometown Chicago, singer Miley Cyrus knocked on students' doors in Virginia and indie rockers The National played a free pro-Clinton show in their native Ohio.
Mr Obama made a non-partisan plea for Americans to vote in a message potentially seen by millions when they opened up leading streaming site Spotify.