MADRID (BLOOMBERG) - Finland and Sweden took a major step on their way to Nato membership after Turkey dropped its opposition to their bids, all but ensuring the military alliance’s expansion on Russia’s doorstep.
The move “sends a very clear message to President Putin that Nato’s door is open,” Nato Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg told reporters at the start of an alliance summit in Madrid.
“He wanted less Nato, now President Putin is getting more Nato, on his borders. So what he gets is the opposite of what he actually demanded.”
Turkey agreed to support inviting the two Nordic countries into the military alliance, after receiving pledges from Finland and Sweden addressing its security concerns, including restrictions on Kurdish groups that Turkey considers terrorists, and avoiding arms embargoes.
“The talks were intense and tough, not in mood, but in terms of the subject matter, and after four hours, we reached an understanding,” Finnish President Sauli Niinisto said.
“Turkey becoming an ally now could impact the considerations” on arms export permits made on a case-by-case basis, he added.
Membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation for the two previously neutral countries would mark a significant shift in the European security landscape after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan earlier met with Swedish Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson, Niinisto and Stoltenberg.
The membership process will still take many months, including ratification from Nato allies’ parliaments, before Finland and Sweden become members and can benefit from the alliance’s Article 5 collective defence commitments.
Stoltenberg said he expected allies to sign the Nordic countries’ accession protocols “immediately” after the summit. All 30 alliance members need to sign off.
A senior US administration official said President Joe Biden’s goal was to help get the deal across the finish line. Biden told Erdogan Tuesday morning in a phone call that he should seize the moment and finalize negotiations for an agreement during the Madrid summit.
There were no US concessions to Turkey to get the deal over the finish line and Turkey never tied long-standing US requests like F-16 fighter jets to any agreement to allow Sweden and Finland to begin the process of joining the alliance , the official told reporters Tuesday evening after it was announced.
“It’s good for Sweden and Finland’s security but in equal measure it is good for Nato as we would contribute to the common security of the alliance,” Andersson said in a phone interview.
“Sweden and Finland were able to explain our work against terrorism and how we have tightened legislation and will continue to strengthen it.”
The US has stressed that bringing Finland and Sweden into the fold could make the alliance more secure. Turkey’s block complicated the allies’ efforts to present a united front in light of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
Sweden has tightened laws on terrorism in recent years, and more steps in that direction are under way. Niinisto has said Finland’s anti-terror legislation is on par with current Nato members following a revamp last year.
The Nordic nations have also highlighted constitutional protections for freedom of speech, meaning they could not prevent peaceful Kurdish demonstrations, and said any extraditions requested by Turkey must be ruled on by courts.
When it comes to lifting bans on arms exports, Andersson in June signalled that the Swedish authorities that grant arms-export approvals may take a different view on shipments to Turkey in light of the Nato membership bid.
Throughout the negotiations, Finland and Sweden insisted they meet all Nato’s entry criteria.
Finland, which has 1,300 kilometres of border with Russia and a history of wars against its eastern neighbour, was driven into Nato’s fold by Russia’s Feb 24 invasion of Ukraine, and pulled neighbouring Sweden along. The attack shifted popular opinion overnight, with policy makers rapidly kicking off the process to join.
Both nations’ militaries are compatible with Nato and include a large number of artillery and tanks. Finland has held onto a conscription-based system, meaning about 900,000 citizens in a country of 5.5 million have had military training, and it’s able to deploy 280,000 of them in war time. Sweden brought back military conscription from 2018.
Finland in December decided to buy 64 Lockheed Martin F-35A multi-role fighter jets to replace its aging F/A-18 Hornets in a 10 billion-euro procurement, and Sweden’s Saab AB makes a plethora of defence systems, including JAS Gripen warplanes and submarines.