When I was in high school, I earned As in all my maths classes - until I took calculus. In algebra and geometry, I could coast on memorising formulas, but now I had to think for myself.
It was disastrous, culminating in my getting a charity "C" and I barely passed my college calculus class. The reason, I was convinced, was that I didn't have a maths mind. I have avoided the subject ever since.
It turns out that I got it wrong. While it's unlikely that I could have become a maths whiz, it wasn't my aptitude for maths that was an impediment; it was my belief that I had the impediment to begin with.
I'm not the only person convinced that he can't like maths. Millions of college freshmen flunk those courses and, because algebra is often required, many drop out of school altogether. A report from the Mathematical Association of America flagged maths as "the most significant barrier" to graduation.
This fatalistic equation can be altered. In scores of rigorously conducted studies, social psychologists have demonstrated that brief experiences can have a powerful and long-lasting impact on students' academic futures by changing their mindsets before they get to college.
Students who come to see themselves as the masters of their own destiny can take advantage of opportunities to learn, but only if those opportunities exist. They won't learn biology unless there's a biology class, and they won't learn to be critical thinkers unless the school makes that a priority.
Consider these examples from three recent studies:
•A cohort of sixth-grade students was taught, in eight lessons, that intelligence is malleable, not fixed, and that the brain is a muscle that grows stronger with effort. Their maths grades, which had been steadily declining, rose substantially, while the grades of classmates who learnt only about good study habits continued to get worse.
•When an English teacher critiqued black male adolescents' papers, she added a sentence stating that she had high expectations and believed that, if the student worked hard, he could meet her exacting standards. Eighty-eight per cent of those students rewrote the assignment and put more effort into rewriting, while just a third of their peers, who were given comments that simply provided feedback, did the same.
•In a series of short written exercises, sixth graders wrote about values that were meaningful to them, like spending time with their family and friends. After this experience, white students did no better, but their black and Latino classmates improved so much that the achievement gap shrank by 40 per cent.
There is every reason to be sceptical of these findings. Like magic spells cast by a modern-day Merlin, they sound much too good to be true. Why should brief interventions carry so much punch when more intricate and costly strategies - everything from summer school to single-sex education - are often less effective?
Innovative social-psychological thinking, not magic, is at work here. These interventions focus on how kids, hunched over their desks in the back of the classroom, make sense of themselves and their environment. They can be brief but powerful because they concentrate on a single core belief.
There are three strategies represented here. The first, pioneered by Stanford social psychology professor Carol Dweck and illustrated by the initial example, aims to change students' mindsets by showing them that their intelligence can grow through deliberate work. I've written about Professor Dweck's theories as applied to college students, but they are just as successful with students in middle school.
The second uses constructive critical feedback to instill trust in minority adolescents, a demonstrably powerful way to advance their social and intellectual development.
The third intervention - and in some ways the most powerful - invites students to acknowledge their self-worth, combatting the corrosive effects of racial stereotypes, by having them focus on a self-affirming value.
These interventions are designed to combat students' negative feelings.
The first two experiences give students the insight that brain work will make them smarter. The third invites them to situate themselves on the path to belonging or to connect with their values in a classroom setting. The goals are to build up their resilience and prepare them for adversity.
The impact, in all these studies, is greatest on black and Latino students. That makes sense, since as adolescents they are far more inclined to see teachers as prejudiced and school as a hostile environment. As these youth come to feel more secure, they are likely to make a greater effort. Success begets success. They start earning As and Bs instead of Cs, they take tougher classes and connect more readily with like-minded students.
An unpublished study by social psychologists shows that the impact echoes years later. African-American seventh graders who were asked to write about the most important value in their lives were propelled on an entirely different path from classmates who wrote about neutral topics. Two years later, the students in the first group were earning better grades and were more likely to be on track for college rather than in remedial classes.
The reverberations persisted beyond high school. These students were more likely to graduate, to enrol in college and to attend more selective institutions.
Can this kind of intervention work on a grander scale? A 2015 study conducted by researchers at Stanford University and the University of Texas suggests so. When 45-minute growth-mindset interventions were delivered online to 1,500 students in 13 high schools scattered across the country, the weakest students were significantly more likely to earn satisfactory grades in their core courses than classmates who didn't have the same intervention.
Using the same approach nationwide, the researchers conclude, would mean 1.8 million more completed courses each year and hundreds of thousands fewer students departing high school with no diploma, slotted into dead-end futures.
Let's be clear - these brief interventions aren't a silver bullet, a quick-and-easy way to transform K-12 education. While they can complement good educational practice, they are no substitute for quality in the classroom.
Students who come to see themselves as the masters of their own destiny can take advantage of opportunities to learn, but only if those opportunities exist. They won't learn biology unless there's a biology class, and they won't learn to be critical thinkers unless the school makes that a priority. What's more, as the researchers are quick to point out, a brief intervention can't even begin to address the pernicious effects of poverty and discrimination.
Still, these experiences require a trivial amount of time, cost next to nothing and can make an outsize difference in students' lives. What's not to like?
- The writer is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, a senior fellow at the Learning Policy Institute and a contributing opinion writer.