SINGAPORE - The Japanese passport remains the most powerful in the world, retaining the top spot in the Henley Passport Index's first update for 2019.
The Republic remains second in the ranking, tied with South Korea.
The Japanese passport offers citizens visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 190 destinations, compared with 189 for Singapore and South Korea.
The South Korean passport was third in the previous index, released in October last year, and rose a place in the ranking due to a new visa-on-arrival agreement with India.
France and Germany remain third in the rankings, offering citizens visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 188 countries.
Tied for fourth are Denmark, Finland, Italy and Sweden.
The Henley Passport Index is compiled by global citizenship and residence advisory firm Henley & Partners, based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority.
The index is updated in real time throughout the year as and when visa policy changes come into effect.