JAKARTA (AFP) - The blasts and gunfire that rocked Jakarta on Thursday (Jan 14) came after six years of relative calm, following a government crackdown that weakened the country’s most dangerous homegrown Islamic networks.
Chief among them was Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), a radical Islamist movement that carried out the bloody 2002 Bali bombings and whose key figures are now mostly dead or jailed.
In recent years however, authorities have also arrested militants linked to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria group, leading to fears that Indonesians returning from Middle East battlefields could stage attacks on home soil.
Here is a timeline of recent events around Islamic militancy in the world’s most populous Muslim-majority nation:
Aug 1, 2000: A car bomb explodes outside the Jakarta residence of Mr Leonides Caday, the Philippine ambassador to Indonesia at the time. Two people were killed and dozens injured, including Mr Caday. Police said the attack was linked to the ouster of the Muslim separatist Moro Islamic Liberation from their camp Mindanao in 1999.
Sept 13, 2000: A car bomb explodes in the basement of the Jakarta Stock Exchange building. Ten people died and 16 were injured 16.
Dec 24, 2000: A series of bombs explode at 11 churches across the country on Christmas Eve. Nineteen people died and around 100 were injured. The attacks were blamed on the Jemaah Islamiah (JI) militant group.
Oct 12, 2002: Two near-simultaneous bombs explode in the nightclub district of Kuta on Bali, killing 202 people, most of them foreign tourists. Several JI operatives were convicted, with three who were sentenced to death. It was Indonesia’s worst ever terror attack.
Dec 5, 2002: A bomb explosion outside a McDonald's restaurant on Sulawesi Island killed three and injured 11. JI-linked militants were said to be behind the attack.
Aug 5, 2003: A car bomb exploded in front of the JW Marriott Hotel in central Jakarta killing 12 and injuring 150. Fifteen alleged JI operatives were convicted in the case.
Sept 9, 2004: A suicide car bomb explosion outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, killed 11 and wounded 100 others. Six alleged JI members were convicted for the attack.
May 28, 2005: Twin bomb blasts kill 22 in a market in the Central Sulawesi town of Tentena in an attack bearing the hallmarks of JI.
Oct 1, 2005: Bomb explosions at three crowded restaurants in Bali, killed 22 and wounded more than 100.
Dec 31, 2005: Twin bomb blasts kill 8 in a market in Palu, in Central Sulawesi.
July 17, 2009: Seven people are killed, six of them foreigners, and more than 40 injured when suicide bombers target the luxury Ritz-Carlton and JW Marriott hotels in Jakarta.
15 April, 2011: Thirty people, mostly policemen, including the Cirebon police chief, were wounded when a 32-year-old suicide bomber detonated explosives strapped to his body as worshippers began their prayers.