What have the Chinese, both the leaders and their people, learnt from their country's crushing defeat by Britain in the First Opium War (1839-1842), and if there are lessons learnt, how will that help them in the present confrontation with the United States?
These seem relevant questions to ask as it is Beijing that often invokes bitter memories of this war, especially the "100 years of humiliation" by imperialist powers that it unleashed, to whip up nationalist sentiments and rally its people whenever it perceives a foreign encroachment on China's sovereignty.
TO READ THE FULL ARTICLE
Thank you for reading The Straits Times
You have reached one of our Premium stories. To continue reading, get access now or log in if you are a subscriber.
What is Premium?