LONDON (AFP) - Brexit becomes a reality on Thursday (Dec 31) as Britain leaves Europe's customs union and single market, ending nearly half a century of often turbulent ties with its closest neighbours.
The United Kingdom's tortuous departure from the European Union takes full effect when Big Ben strikes 11pm in central London (7am Friday Singapore time), just as most of the European mainland ushers in 2021 at midnight.
Brexit has dominated British politics since the country's narrow vote to leave the bloc in June 2016, opening deep political and social wounds that still remain raw.
Legally, Britain left on Jan 31 this year but has been in a standstill transition period during fractious talks to a secure a free-trade agreement with Brussels, which was finally clinched on Christmas Eve.
Once the transition ends, EU rules will no longer apply, with the immediate consequence being an end to the free movement of more than 500 million people between Britain and 27 EU states.
Customs border checks will be back for the first time in decades, and despite the free-trade deal, queues and disruption from additional paperwork are expected.
Britain - a financial and diplomatic big-hitter, and a major Nato power - is the first member state to leave the EU, which was set up to forge unity after the horrors of World War II.
The EU has lost 66 million people and an economy worth US$2.85 trillion (S$3.77 trillion), but Brexit, with its appeal to nationalist populism, also triggered fears other disgruntled members could follow suit.
Leaders in both London and Brussels signalled their wish to draw a line.
"It's been a long road. It's time now to put Brexit behind us. Our future is made in Europe," European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen said on Wednesday, as she signed the trade pact.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson said Brexit was designed to resolve "the old, tired, vexed question of Britain's political relations with Europe, which has bedevilled our post-war history".
Thursday "marks a new beginning in our country's history and a new relationship with the EU as their biggest ally", he said after British parliament voted to back the trade deal.
"This moment is finally upon us and now is the time to seize it."
Unlike in January, when flag-waving Brexiteers led by populist anti-EU former lawmaker Nigel Farage cheered, and pro-EU "remainers" mourned, no formal events are planned for the end of the transition.
Public gatherings are banned due to the coronavirus outbreak, which has claimed more than 72,000 lives and infected more than 2.4 million in Britain, including Mr Johnson himself.
But Mr Johnson is looking not only to a future free of Covid-19 but also of rules set in Brussels, as Britain forges its own path for the first time since it joined the old European Economic Community in 1973.
On Wednesday, he hailed regulatory approval of Oxford University and AstraZeneca's Covid-19 vaccine, and a new beginning for a prosperous, more globally focused Britain.
As well as ensuring tariff- and quota-free access to the EU's 450 million consumers, Britain has recently signed trade deals with countries including Japan, Canada, Singapore and Turkey.
It is also eyeing another with India, where Mr Johnson plans to make his first major trip as prime minister next month, and with incoming US president Joe Biden's administration.
In the short term, all eyes will be closer to home and focused on how life outside the EU plays out in practical terms.
That includes disruption at the ports, which have stoked fears of food and medicine shortages, as well as delays to holidaymakers and business travellers used to seamless travel in the EU.
British fishermen are disgruntled at a compromise to allow continued access to EU boats in British waters.
The key financial services sector also faces an anxious wait to learn on what basis it can keep dealing with Europe, after being largely omitted from the trade deal.
Northern Ireland's border with EU member state Ireland will be closely watched to ensure movement is unrestricted - a key plank of a 1998 peace deal that ended 30 years of violence over British rule.
In Scotland, where most opposed Brexit, Mr Johnson faces a potential constitutional headache from a resurgent independence movement.