LONDON • With the transfer window opening today, here is an English Premier League club-by-club guide on what each of them need.
Arsenal (1st, 39 points)
What they need: Arsenal needed a defensive midfielder last summer, only for Arsene Wenger to opt against signing one, and they really need such a player now, with serious injuries having stretched the club's resources. It need not be a short-term stop-gap, as Mikel Arteta, Mathieu Flamini and Tomas Rosicky are out of contract in the summer and not certain to be given new deals.
Top target: Mohamed Elneny, the 23-year-old Basel and Egypt midfielder.
Aston Villa (20th, 8pts)
What they need: The problem for Remi Garde is not so much who to target but how to get them to sign given that Villa are pretty much nailed on to be relegated. With a goal-scorer a priority, Everton's Steven Naismith and Chelsea's Loic Remy have both been linked, but Garde is also looking for a 'keeper.
Top target: A goal-scoring forward.
Bournemouth (16th, 20pts)
What they need: While the calm of Simon Francis has steadied the back-line since switching to centre-back and Steve Cook is slowly maturing, the defence would welcome a commanding centre-back, even with the captain, Tommy Elphick, set to return later this month. Up front, Roma forward Juan Iturbe is close to joining on loan.
Top target: A striker.
Chelsea (14th, 20pts)
What they need: Radamel Falcao's loan has been ineffective and could be curtailed, and the addition of a forward, if possible, should be a priority given Diego Costa's toils to date this term. Yet Guus Hiddink, under instruction from the hierarchy, might lean more heavily on some of the youngsters nurtured in the academy.
Top target: A forward, either Shakhtar Donetsk's Alex Teixeira or Leicester's Jamie Vardy.
Crystal Palace (5th, 31pts)
What they need: Palace may have to move out players to offer themselves some leeway in the market. Alan Pardew may target a forward and defensive cover as priorities to add to his options.
Top target: A striker, with Remy, Michy Batshuayi, Simone Zaza, Adrian Ramos, Khouma Babacar and Charlie Austin all linked.
Everton (11th, 26pts)
What they need: January is a time for "tweaks" and not fundamental changes, according to Roberto Martinez , who may be busier trimming his squad than adding established players to it. No key players will be allowed to leave, as Everton showed in the summer with John Stones and Chelsea, but Naismith and Aiden McGeady could be among the departures.
Top target: A goal-scoring midfielder.
Leicester City (2nd, 39pts)
What they need: The best transfer news for Leicester fans will be if the window closes and Vardy, Riyad Mahrez and N'Golo Kante are all still at the club - and everything suggests that will be the case. Gokhan Inler and Andrej Kramaric may leave, if only on loan, in search of regular first-team football.
Top target: Centre-back for cover.
Liverpool (7th, 30pts)
What they need: Juergen Klopp has said repeatedly that Liverpool's players will be given time to prove themselves, that solutions do not lie outside Anfield and his first transfer moves have been with next summer in mind in the form of Red Star Belgrade midfielder Marko Grujic and Schalke defender Joel Matip.
Top target: A goalkeeper and a central defender.
Manchester City (3rd, 36pts)
What they need: Vincent Kompany's chronic calf injury, the chequered form of Eliaquim Mangala and Nicolas Otamendi, plus Martin Demichelis' advancing years, means City should be looking to add a high-class central defender. Manuel Pellegrini could also decide to chase a striker as Sergio Aguero is prone to breaking down, too.
Top target: Stones and Leroy Sane.
Manchester United (6th, 30pts)
What they need: Given the side's military medium pace and the near drought before goal, perhaps a turbo-heeled marksman with a ruthless edge is the quickest way to fix United's slumping form.
Top target: Vardy.
Newcastle United (18th, 17pts)
What they need: We know Steve McClaren craves a couple of older, experienced players but acquiring them would involve Mike Ashley, the owner, performing a volte face on recruitment policy. Newcastle could do with a new left-back, a striker, a winger, a composed yet creative central midfielder and a centre-half.
Top target: Tottenham Hotspur winger Andros Townsend.
Norwich City (15th, 20pts)
What they need: There has been a lack of consistent goal threat and Alex Neil would like to add another forward to his pack. An £8 million (S$16.8 million) fee for Naismith has been agreed (although the Everton player has not agreed a move yet) and Wolves' Benik Afobe is a possibility. Neil would also like to add competition at centre-back and Lorient's Lamine Kone has been heavily scouted.
Top target: Naismith.
Southampton (12th, 24pts)
What they need: The priority for Ronald Koeman is to retain Sadio Mane and Victor Wanyama, who are targets for Manchester United and Arsenal respectively. Koeman could do with cover up front, given Jay Rodriguez's injury problems.
Top target: A striker.
Stoke City (10th, 29pts)
What they need: The only obvious position that needs strengthening is at defensive midfield, where support for Glenn Whelan is sparse.
Marco van Ginkel has not impressed sufficiently since joining on loan from Chelsea , with Charlie Adam and Geoff Cameron appearing in front of the back four.
Top target: Defensive midfielder.
Sunderland (19th, 12pts)
What they need: Ideally Sunderland would strengthen themselves in every department but left-back and centre-half appear particularly pressing priorities.
Top target: A commanding central defender.
Swansea City (17th, 19pts)
What they need: Swansea must find someone who can regularly put the ball in the back of the net. They have never replaced Wilfried Bony and cannot rely on Bafetimbi Gomis.
Top target: A goal-scoring centre-forward.
Tottenham (4th, 35pts)
What they need: Mauricio Pochettino is on record as saying that the club are tracking strikers and the need for a back-up to Harry Kane is clear, particularly as the Europa League will resume in February and Clinton Njie is injured.
Top target: A striker
Watford (9th, 29pts)
What they need: As a result of their success over the first half of the season, Watford are able to take a laid-back approach to January, happy with their current squad but ready to pounce if the right player becomes available.
Top target: A back-up goalkeeper.
West Bromwich (13th, 23pts)
What they need: The most obvious potential departure is Saido Berahino, for whom West Brom would expect to receive over £20million. That could be used to fund a replacement forward and also a left-back. Pulis is also interested in Spurs' Townsend.
Top target: A left-back.
West Ham (8th, 29pts)
What they need: How active they are in January will depend on key players returning to action, although one deal that should be completed is the permanent transfer of Manuel Lanzini, who has excelled since signing on loan.
Top target: A creative midfielder or winger to support Dimitri Payet.