In many studies around the world, researchers have found an urban-rural divide during elections, with city dwellers being more willing to vote for change.
Various reasons have been offered to explain this phenomenon. Some analysts believe that urban voters are generally bolder in breaking from the status quo because they tend to be better educated and better informed in their decision-making. One study of African voters, published in 2013, found that unlike urban voters, rural ones were more susceptible to clientelism, in which politicians promised targeted benefits in exchange for support. The incumbents were seen as being more likely to fulfil election promises because they had more to offer and this belief favours them in rural areas.