Relationships between states are usually bound by a certain set of rules and understandings, something political theorists refer to as the "international order". These rules of the game are today broadly set by the United States and Europe, with most other countries going along with them.
But that agreement is far from unanimous. "Challenger" countries have emerged, refusing to follow the rules and demanding that they are set differently. In the Middle East, these states are seeking to destabilise other countries, and create a new world order across nations that did not form the old order.