The day Christian fundamentalism was born

How an assembly in Philadelphia a century ago changed American religion forever

For many Americans, it was thrilling to be alive in 1919. The end of World War I had brought hundreds of thousands of soldiers home. Cars were rolling off the assembly lines. New forms of music, like jazz, were driving people to dance. And science was in the ascendant, after helping the war effort. Women, having done so much on the home front, were ready to claim the vote, and African Americans were eager to enjoy full citizenship, at long last. In a word, life was dazzlingly modern.

But for many other Americans, modernity was exactly the problem. As many parts of the country were experimenting with new ideas and beliefs, a powerful counter-revolution was forming in some of the nation's largest churches and Bible institutes. A group of Christian leaders, anxious about the chaos that seemed to be enveloping the globe, recalibrated the faith and gave it a new urgency. They knew that the time was right for a revolution in American Christianity. In its own way, this new movement - fundamentalism - was every bit as important as the modernity it seemingly resisted, with remarkable determination.

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A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Sunday Times on June 02, 2019, with the headline 'The day Christian fundamentalism was born'. Print Edition | Subscribe