CHICAGO • More than three decades after Honda Motor first built an Accord sedan at its Marysville, Ohio, factory in 1982, humans are still an integral part of the assembly process - and that is unlikely to change anytime soon.
Even as doom-and-gloom reports suggest robots are poised to replace human labour and automotive upstarts such as Tesla aim to largely remove people from the production line, workers keep toiling side by side with machines in Marysville.
And Honda's approach is working: The Accord won the prestigious North American Car of the Year award at last week's Detroit auto show.
"We can't find anything to take the place of the human touch and of human senses like sight, hearing and smell," Mr Tom Shoupe, the chief operating officer of Honda's Ohio manufacturing unit, said.
Honda is not alone. Japanese rival Toyota Motor uses just a handful of robots on the Camry final assembly line at its plant in Georgetown, Kentucky, and has no plans to add more, according to Mr Mark Boire, chief production engineer.
Mr Markus Schaefer, production chief at Mercedes-Benz, in 2016 said the carmaker was de-automating and relying more on humans to install the endless array of options that luxury customers demand.
The carmakers' approach to running their final assembly lines casts doubt on studies suggesting robots are on the verge of wiping out massive numbers of manufacturing jobs.
A McKinsey Global Institute report from December, for example, found that as many as 375 million workers globally may need to switch professions by 2030 due to advancements in automation.
Like other carmakers, Honda uses robots for almost all painting and welding. The company even installed an all-new weld shop with 342 robots to make the Accord's redesigned metal body.
But in final assembly, where workers install motors, wheels and interior trim components, the level of automation has not changed much since the factory in Marysville opened, according to plant manager Rob May.
The 10th generation Accord, which Honda began building in high volume in September, is still made with a balanced combination of manpower and machine.
Before the company launched the new model, it installed a big blue robot to lift rear suspensions up into the bottom of the car.
But it also assigned two humans to place six bolts and four brackets on the suspension before the robot begins its lifting.
The robot is not smart or dexterous enough to reach in and around the suspension to place the bolts where they need to go, Mr May said.
The workers must use their left hand for some bolts and their right hand for others, since they are operating in a tight, awkward space and they have to visually inspect their work - all in the span of about 40 seconds.
"You have to have timing," said Mr James Erwin, 47, a 15-year Marysville veteran and one of the workers loading the blue robot, nicknamed G-Smurf. "I don't think robots can take over. They don't have the manual dexterity or judgment that we have."
All told, Honda uses only about 20 robots for its Marysville final assembly line, Mr May said.
In meetings with state leaders in Columbus about economic growth, Mr Shoupe of Honda said he often encounters other businessmen and women worrying that robots are wiping out Ohio jobs.
But he says his own view is fundamentally different. What concerns Honda instead, he said, is finding enough new recruits to replace long-time workers as they retire.
The average Marysville worker now has 29 years of seniority.