There have been many stories of licensed family-owned dogs that have lived for years restrained by chains or confined in small cages.
These dogs are often kept in an outdoor area, such as the front porch or garden, and have little or no shelter from harsh weather conditions.
Some have no access to clean drinking water and food. They are isolated and kept to the same spot day after day, and have to urinate, defaecate, eat and sleep in the same area.
These living conditions have shocked animal lovers.
Chaining or caging a dog for a long time is not illegal here.
So dog owners need to be educated via an awareness campaign that subjecting a dog to long hours of chaining and confinement is a form of animal cruelty.
They must be mindful of the harmful long-term effects of keeping their dogs chained and caged.
These can include mental illness as well as physical health problems, for example, skin diseases.
All dogs, including guard dogs, should be allowed to roam in a reasonably large area, and be provided with hygienic living conditions.
Stephanie Patricia Ngo (Ms)