MUMBAI • India's tycoons are playing a pivotal role in the Asian giant's most expensive election, from funding campaigns and tacit endorsements to being hot-button issues themselves.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's re-election bid has received huge financial backing from corporate India, raising fears about the integrity of the world's largest democratic process, experts say.
Congress party opponent Rahul Gandhi is trying to exploit a fighter jet deal involving industrialist Anil Ambani, while fugitive tycoons Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi loom over the vote from London.
Contesting in elections is getting costlier in India and analysts say parties are becoming more reliant on donations from anonymous businessmen, leading to a lack of transparency and worrying conflicts of interest. "There's a trend towards plutocracy," said Mr Niranjan Sahoo, of the Observer Research Foundation think-tank. "Unbridled corporate influence can have a serious impact on policies."
The New Delhi-based Centre for Media Studies estimates that around US$5 billion (S$6.8 billion) was spent during the 2014 election that swept Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to power - up from US$2 billion in 2009. The group thinks this year's election could top US$7 billion, making it one of the priciest elections globally.
"Elections are getting more expensive for many structural reasons," said Mr Milan Vaishnav, a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace think-tank.
"(There is a) growing population, increasing political competition, voter expectations of handouts in the form of cash and other inducements, and technological change, which means greater outlays for media and digital outreach," he added.
A WORRYING IMBALANCE
There is a huge funding disparity now. Congress simply doesn't have the money to fight elections. That should worry people.
MR NIRANJAN SAHOO, of the Observer Research Foundation think-tank, on the huge amount of funding the BJP gets.
Analysts say traditional funding streams, such as party memberships, are declining, so parties increasingly rely on wealthy donors to fund campaigns.
Data compiled by the Association for Democratic Reforms, an election watchdog, showed that in financial year 2017-18, corporates and individuals contributed 12 times more to the BJP than to six other national parties, including Congress, combined. The BJP received 93 per cent of all donations above 20,000 rupees (S$390) that year. It banked 4.37 billion rupees, while Congress got just 267 million rupees.
"There is a huge funding disparity now. Congress simply doesn't have the money to fight in elections. That should worry people," said Mr Sahoo.
Mr Modi's government says it has cracked down on so-called "black money" in politics by lowering the amount that can be donated in cash from 20,000 rupees to 2,000 rupees.
Critics, however, say it is now easier for wealthy entities to donate to political parties; corporate funding formed 92 per cent of the total donations declared by the BJP in 2017-18, said the Association for Democratic Reforms.
Detractors point to the government removing a cap on corporate donations two years ago and introducing a scheme where donors can give anonymously through "electoral bonds" bought from a bank.
Last Friday, India's Supreme Court ordered parties to reveal the identity of donors after activists challenged the bond system, which the government has defended.
"The lack of transparency allows conflicts of interest and quid pro quos to flourish," said Mr Vaishnav.
Tycoons do not explicitly endorse candidates for fear of backing the wrong horse but Mr Modi is seen to be close to several big businessmen.
In 2014, he travelled between rallies in a corporate jet and helicopter owned by billionaire industrialist Gautam Adani, while magnate Ratan Tata praised Mr Modi for carrying out air strikes in Pakistan.
Mr Gandhi is trying to score points by accusing Mr Modi and Mr Ambani of dodgy dealings related to the purchase of Rafale jets from France - allegations that both deny.
The Congress leader is also using liquor baron Mallya and jeweller Nirav Modi to attack the BJP. The government accuses them of massive fraud and is trying to extradite them from Britain.
Mr Modi pledged to crack down on crony capitalism during his tenure, so the duo represent a sore point for a man who prides himself on being India's "chowkidar" or watchman.