The Daily Star/Asia News Network
As targeted killings of individuals with unorthodox views and members of minority communities continue unabated in Bangladesh, so does the debate on whether international terrorists have made inroads to the country.
The question has been whether the claims of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) of their presence in Bangladesh should be taken at face value.
In the past months, both these organisations have been claiming responsibility for a series of killings.
Until recently, these claims have not been accompanied by justifications, but that pattern seems to be changing.
The AQIS affiliate Ansar-al Islam, issued a long statement after the murder of Xulhazs Mannan, an LGBT activist and USAID staff member.
The government, on the other hand, has continued to deny the existence of these organisations and insists that these are the acts of 'homegrown' militants.
In April, the English magazine of the ISIS, Dabiq, published an interview with the so-called Amir of the Bangladeshi chapter of the IS to bolster its presence.
Ansar-al Islam claims to represent the AQIS in Bangladesh.
This is a mutated version of the organisation Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT), which came into being in 2007.
Both the denial of any external connections of Bangladeshis, and insistence that the ISIS/AQIS has recently made inroads in the country, seem to disregard the historical background of militancy in Bangladesh.
Bangladeshi militants had regional and extra-regional connections since their inception in the mid-1990s.
It is worth recalling that the genesis of Islamist militants can be traced back to the Afghan War (1979-1989) in the late 1980s.
The fountainhead of the militant groups in Bangladesh, Harkat-ul-Jihad al Islami Bangladesh (HuJIB), emerged in public on April 30, 1992 through a press conference at the National Press Club in Dhaka.
A group of so-called volunteers, who participated in the Afghan War in the previous years, arranged a press conference in the wake of the fall of Kabul to the Afghan Mujahedeen.
Although the rudimentary form of the HuJI began in Pakistan in 1980, it was formally established in 1988.
It expanded in the following four years, as the HuJI leadership wanted to reach out to other parts of South Asia.
This led to the establishment of the HuJI in Bangladesh. The initial goal was to use Bangladesh as the launching pad for destabilising neighbouring Myanmar.
The operation of the HuJIB expanded further after it established relationships with the local militant organisation Jamaat-ul-Mujahedeen Bangladesh (JMB).
The JMB was founded in 1998 but was named as such three years later. Its founding was a culmination of a series of meetings between Sayekh Abdur Rahman and a number of Islamist leaders and Ulema in 1996.
These meetings brought Mufti Hannan and Abdur Rahman together.
On Jan 19, 1996, law enforcement agencies busted a training camp in a remote part of Cox's Bazar and arrested 41 armed militants. The camp was originally thought to be a training camp of Rohingya rebels based in Bangladesh.
When these militants were being tried at a local court in Cox's Bazar, Abdur Rahman was sent as the HuJIB representative to monitor and help the accused.
This turned out to be the beginning of a long relationship between JMB and the HuJI-B.
The external connections of the potential militants of Bangladesh began in earnest in 1997-98.
The connection established between Indian citizen Syed Abdul Karim Tunda and Abdur Rahman is a watershed moment in the history of militancy in Bangladesh.
Tunda, who has been in Indian custody since 2013 on a number of terrorism charges, is alleged to be an operative of the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).
Indian intelligence sources insist that Tunda entered Bangladesh in 1994 and operated from there for quite some time.
In any case, he was the bridge between Abdur Rahman of the JMB and the LeT and Hafiz Saeed. Indian intelligence agencies had claimed that Thadiyantavide Nazir of the Lashkar-e-Taiba, allegedly connected to the 2008 bomb blasts in Bangalore, had travelled to Bangladesh.
The presence of regional militants in Bangladesh became publicly known in 2008 and 2009. Abdur Rauf Merchant and Jahed Sheikh, two Indian militants, were arrested in Bangladesh.
Between May and September 2009, six members of the so-called Aref Reza Commando Forces (ARCF), including Mufti Obaidullah were arrested.
Some of these militants admitted that they were living in Bangladesh for some time; for example, Obaidullah claimed to be in Bangladesh since 1995 and another member of the group Habibullah claimed to be residing since 1993.
The other source for the connections between the Bangladeshi militants and outside groups was the presence of the Rohingya rebel groups in Chittagong Hill Tracts.
HUJI's primary goal was to establish contact with these rebel groups.
Interestingly, Rohingya rebel groups, Bangladeshi militants and northeast Indian rebel groups, such as the ULFA, had reportedly worked together to procure weapons from black markets in Southeast Asia and used Cox's Bazar's remote shoreline as the drop-off point before being distributed.
This shows that cooperation among militant groups across the border does not have to be based on ideological affinity; instead other factors can and do bring these groups together.
In the age of globalisation, exportation of terrorism does not require physical presence of operatives of international terrorist groups in a country.
There are many ways of indoctrination and recruitment. Ideas of extremism to identification of targets can well be coordinated from distant lands.
A number of attacks in various parts of the world have already demonstrated that the internet as a vehicle is quite effective.
The phenomenon called 'lone wolf' is pertinent here.
As such, the characterisation of ongoing militancy as a combination of global and local – a 'glocal' phenomenon, as Habibul Haque Khondoker writes in a local English daily - is apt.
There is no denying that there are Bangladeshi citizens willing to join the 'Global Jihad' and bring it home.
A survey of newspaper reports published between July 2014 and June 2015, shows that law enforcing agencies arrested 112 alleged 'militants'. Of these, 22 individuals were identified as either connected to or aspiring to be connected to ISIS, 12 reportedly tried to travel to Syria.
Two rounds of arrests of Bangladeshis in Singapore, in December last year and in March this year, also show that expatriates can become vehicles for radicalisation.
There have been instances of British-Bangladeshis joining the Syrian war from the United Kingdom.
Indian investigators have claimed that Bangladeshi militants, particularly the JMB, have been known to operate from India, particularly in West Bengal.
As such Bangladeshi militants' external connections should not be viewed as an entirely new phenomenon.
This is not to underestimate the significance of connections with the IS or AQIS, instead to underscore that given the history such links would require few efforts.
If individual acquaintances of the past metamorphose into an organisational tie, the situation will take a turn for the worse, perhaps slide down to an unmanageable level.
The ISIS/AQIS is capable of providing additional resources and a global stage for these menacing groups.
It is a matter of time and opportunity before such a tie can flourish. Therefore, it is imperative to acknowledge that denial cannot be a strategy, and that it is necessary to act in earnest.
The writer is professor and chair of the Department of Politics and Government at Illinois State University, USA.