TOKYO (REUTERS) - Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe speaking on the 75th anniversary of Japan's World War II surrender, pledged never to repeat the tragedy of war and Emperor Naruhito expressed "deep remorse" over the wartime past, which still haunts East Asia.
"Never to repeat the tragedy of war. We will continue to remain committed to this resolute pledge," said Mr Abe, wearing a face mask at an official ceremony for war dead on Saturday (Aug 15) that was scaled back because of the Covid-19 outbreak.
Mr Abe, who did not echo Emperor Naruhito's reference to remorse, sent a ritual offering to Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine for war dead but avoided a personal visit that would anger China and South Korea.
South Korean President Moon Jae-in, whose ties with Japan have been chilled by the legacy of the past, said in a speech Seoul was always ready to discuss history disputes with Tokyo.
At least four Cabinet ministers paid their respects in person at the shrine, which honours 14 Japanese wartime leaders convicted as war criminals by an Allied tribunal as well as war dead, and is seen by Beijing and Seoul as a symbol of Japan's past military aggression.
"I came to deliver a message from (ruling Liberal Democratic Party) President Abe that he paid his respects from the heart to the war dead and prayed for the rest and permanent peace of their souls," said ruling party lawmaker Shuichi Takatori, who made the offering on Mr Abe's behalf.
Mr Abe has not gone to Yasukuni in person since a December 2013 visit that outraged China and South Korea, but has sent offerings via an aide.
Environment Minister Shinjiro Koizumi, 39, often floated as a future premier, visited the shrine on the emotive anniversary, as did Mr Abe ally Education Minister Koichi Hagiuda, Mr Seiichi Eto, the minister for territorial affairs, and Internal Affairs Minister Sanae Takaichi.
Men and women of all ages braved scorching heat amid the novel coronavirus pandemic to pay their respects at Yasukuni, where queues quickly became congested, despite markers and signs seeking to maintain social distance.
Many people stood in long queues for hours, holding parasols to block the sun in heat over 35 deg C.
"I earnestly hope that the ravages of war will never again be repeated," Emperor Naruhito, 60, said at the official ceremony after bowing together with Empress Masako before an altar in front of a bank of flowers.
Both royals also wore face masks.
The grandson of Emperor Hirohito in whose name Imperial troops fought the war, Emperor Naruhito is Japan's first monarch born after the war. He ascended the throne last year after his father, Akihito, abdicated.
The United States and Japan have become staunch security allies in the decades since the war's end but its legacy still haunts East Asia.
Koreans, who mark the date as National Liberation Day, resent Japan's 1910-1945 colonisation of the peninsula. China has bitter memories of imperial troops' invasion and occupation of parts of the country from 1931-1945.
"We must learn from history, let history be a warning for the future, and show that we are prepared to fight in the event of a war", said a commentary by the official newspaper of China's military, the People's Liberation Army.
Japan's ties with South Korea especially are strained by a dispute over compensation for Koreans forced to work in Japan's wartime mines and factories.
Relations are also strained over "comfort women", as those made to work in Japanese military brothels are euphemistically known.
"We have been discussing with the Japanese government on an amicable solution that the victims can agree on," Mr Moon said in a speech in Seoul. "The door for negotiation is still widely open."
Consensus over the war remains elusive within Japan, where more than 80 per cent of people were born after the conflict's end.
"Let's not talk about the past, let's look at the future. I hope that Japan and South Korea can come closer together," said Ms Ayaka Soma, 27, a freelance researcher visiting Yasukuni.
One visitor to Yasukuni, Ms Nobuko Watanabe, 51, said she understood why Koreans would resent visits there but added ties could improve.
"When people talk to each other one-on-one ... we are able to communicate and open our hearts to each other."
Fewer than 600 people, including relatives of war dead, took part in Saturday's state-sponsored ceremony, down from more than 6,000 last year.
Seats were spaced out and a musical performance replaced the singing of the national anthem.