About half a million people turn up for the annual July 1 rally to mark the handover of the city to China. They are infuriated by a proposal to enact a national security law which they view as infringing on their freedom. It would have prohibited treason, secession, sedition and subversion against the Chinese government. It was shelved indefinitely after the peaceful march.
Tens of thousands of Hong Kongers participate in a protest on July 29 against a proposal to add moral and national education to the curriculum of the city's schools. It is seen as an attempt to "brainwash" young people. In late August, a group of secondary students begin an "occupation" against the proposal and in early September the government announces that schools are given discretion whether to implement the curriculum.
Protesters, mostly students, occupy streets in the financial district, the Causeway Bay shopping belt and Mong Kok (a blue-collar district), to demand greater democracy. They believe that proposals to grant universal suffrage in elections for the chief executive are a sham because candidates are first to be vetted by Beijing. The 79-day largely peaceful sit-in protest, known as the Umbrella Movement or Occupy Central, ends without the protesters winning any concessions from Beijing.
A proposed Bill to amend extradition laws that will allow criminal suspects in the city to be sent to the mainland brings Hong Kongers out to the streets in the millions. They oppose the Bill because of fear that it will erode their civil rights and political freedom. Younger protesters adopt more confrontational tactics in order to be heard, leading to clashes with police on June 12 and the storming of the Legislative Council building on July 1.