SYDNEY (Reuters) - One hostage the Sydney siege gunman failed to take this week was social media.
After traditional media refused to air or print details of phone calls his hostages made, Man Haron Monis turned to Facebook and YouTube, forcing his captives to use their personal accounts to issue his demands to speak to the prime minister and spread claims that he had planted bombs around the city.
Those messages never went viral. Not only were social media companies liaising with Australian police to block posts, but the broader online community practicised self-censorship to a degree that surprised many experts.
"This was a new situation for us," said a source at one social media company, requesting anonymity because he was not authorised to speak on the record. "Even as we tried to track down what was coming from where and whether it was genuine, there were a good deal of people reporting posts and just refusing to pass things on."
The siege, believed by social media sources to be unique in how the hostage-taker used captives to try to disseminate his message for several hours, showed that social media had "grown up", experts said.
The behaviour of most Internet users during the crisis contrasted with notions of new media as a "Wild West" where vigilantes, such as those who spread unverified, and ultimately incorrect, photos on social networking site Reddit Inc of the Boston Marathon bombers, had free reign.
"Here was a guy who had the eyes of the world on him thanks to the live video feed (of the cafe) and he couldn't get a tweet or a Facebook post to resonate," said Dr Stephen Dann, senior lecturer in the research school of management at the Australian National University in Canberra. "I think the message for others trying the same tactic is that social media is more socially responsible than many had thought."
As the siege unfolded, several frightened hostages recorded YouTube videos using cafe worker Joel Herat's account, which were then flagged on Twitter. Others posted frantic updates on their Facebook pages.
Facebook, Google-owned YouTube and Twitter all declined to comment in detail on the siege, saying they were part of a formal inquiry into the hostage drama. "During the situation on Monday we responded to the direction and instructions from law enforcement and we will continue to cooperate with their ongoing investigation," a Facebook spokesman said.
Police declined to comment. During the siege, officers would only say they were monitoring social media.
The first Facebook post from Ms Marcia Mikhael, a bank worker, read: "Dear friends and family, I'm at the Lindt Cafe at Martin Place being held hostage by a member of the ISIS. The man who is keeping us hostage has asked for small and simple requests and none have been met. He is now threatening to start killing us. We need help right now. The man wants the world to know that Australia is under attack by the Islamic State."
Ms Mikhael's niece quickly added a plea to her aunt's page, urging people not to share any messages released by the hostages "as the terrorist is using them as a means of communication. This could put my aunty and the others in grave danger".
Most Internet users complied, and many reported Ms Mikhael's posts to Facebook, resulting in them being removed. Facebook was also able to monitor accounts as the siege progressed with a list of names relevant to the siege provided by the police.
YouTube's round-the-clock team dealing with content complaints got fast warning of videos in which four female hostages outlined Monis' demands.
The "flags" available to users to report unlawful or inappropriate content include one aimed at blocking content that promotes terrorism. "The majority of the videos were flagged by the YouTube community very, very fast and we were able to take them down very quickly," said a source at the company.
A source with knowledge of Twitter's response said the company was unaware of any direct tweets from the hostages, although some users tweeted links to the YouTube videos.
Twitter pointed users towards official users, such as the New South Wales state police. Many users promoted those accounts and prompted others not to retweet any video tweets. "It was a level of self-censorship by users that was nothing that Twitter was involved in directly," the source said.
Monis' attempt to use social media may have not only failed but also backfired. A two-way street meant the police gained critical information about what was happening inside the cafe from the live updates.
But while Monis failed to manipulate social media, a single Sydney train commuter promoting solidarity with Muslims on her Facebook page had a huge impact.
The hashtag "I'll ride with you" went viral as tweets pledged support for any Australian Muslims travelling on public transport who felt vulnerable because of any possible community backlash.
Police killed Monis, a self-styled sheikh, when they stormed the Lindt Chocolate Cafe early on Tuesday morning to free hostages held at gunpoint for 16 hours. Police are investigating whether two hostages who also died were killed by Monis or were hit in the crossfire.