Key points in Wada's report

IAAF responsibility

"The IAAF had inadequate governance processes in place to prevent the corruption that occurred.

"It was insufficiently firm in dealing with a number of countries, including Russia. It could not have been unaware of the extent of doping in athletics.

"There was an evident lack of political appetite within the IAAF to confront Russia with the full extent of its known and suspected doping activities."

Lamine Diack

IAAF president 1999-2015

"He was responsible for organising and enabling the conspiracy and corruption that took place...

"He sanctioned and appears to have had personal knowledge of the fraud and the extortion of athletes carried out by the actions of the informal illegitimate governance structure he put in place."

IAAF consultants

"Taken as a whole, the consultants Papa Massata and Khalil Diack (both Lamine's sons) and the lawyer Habib Cisse functioned as an informal illegitimate governance structure intentionally formed by Lamine Diack.

"Their familial or close personal ties to Lamine Diack facilitated the emergence of this powerful rogue group outside the IAAF governance structure, yet operated under the aegis of the IAAF."

Valentin Balakhnichev

IAAF treasurer 2011-2014, president of Russian Athletics Federation (Araf) 1991-2015

"Information provided to Balakhnichev by Habib Cisse allowed Araf and some Russian athletics coaches to enable Russian athletes to continue competing despite being dirty (i.e. doped)."

Gabriel Dolle

IAAF anti-doping doctor 1994-2014

"The actions of Dolle in company with Cisse allowed dirty Russian athletes to compete and alter the results on the playing field. This conduct has the same effect as a cover-up."

Recommendations on corruption

•Introduce "reasonable term limits for the president"

•Conduct a forensic audit of the IAAF's marketing and sponsorship functions, including the role and remuneration of any agents or consultants.

•Develop, implement and enforce a policy regarding the employment or hiring of consultants who are related to persons in the senior management functions of the IAAF.

• A conflicts of interest policy be developed for all employees and those associated with the IAAF.

• All potential conflicts of interest be declared and special attention paid to such declarations.

• Contracts for hiring consultants must be approved by the IAAF Council.

• Consider the governance principles surrounding potential conflicts of interest between the IAAF and its member federations.

• Pursue all individuals involved in the extortion of the athletes (Russian athletes and whistle-blowers Liliya Shobukhova and Asli Alptekin).

Recommendations on the fight against doping

• Set up new anti-doping regulations for high-risk countries.

• Report to Wada at least twice a year in case of difficulties with a national federation.

• Report to Wada concerning all independent expert findings on biological passports.

• Consider "possible benefits of increasing the number of urine samples taken at the time of obtaining blood samples".

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on January 16, 2016, with the headline 'Key points in Wada's report'. Print Edition | Subscribe