Many people turn to off-the-shelf capsules and remedies to combat chronic ailments and other bodily discomforts.
But not all these health products are legal here. Some contain undisclosed ingredients like Western medicine. These are referred to as adulterated products.
Some of these may be marketed as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. However, TCM physician Lim Lay Beng, who runs a clinic at The Adelphi, said: "Any TCM product that contains Western medicine is not considered a TCM product. It is considered an illegal product in Singapore."
Health products that are not approved for sale here, as well as fake products that are passed off as registered ones, are the other types of illegal health products.
Last year, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA) alerted the public to more than 10 of these products. Here are some of them:
It contains a banned ingredient called sibutramine. A healthy woman in her 30s experienced breathing difficulties, increased heart rate and excessive sweating of the palms after taking this product for less than two weeks.
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Apart from high levels of sibutra- mine, this weight-loss product has phenolphthalein, which can cause abdominal cramps, breathing difficulties and kidney disorders.
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It contains diclofenac, a potent painkiller that, when used for a prolonged period, may cause serious gastric bleeding, heart attack and stroke.
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This has glibenclamide, a prescription-only medication which should be used only under medical supervision as it can cause blood disorders.
It also contains yohimbine, which can give rise to insomnia and heart palpitations.
A woman in her 60s took this for about three months before seeing a doctor for sore throat and tiredness. She was diagnosed with agranulocytosis, a serious blood disorder that makes one more prone to falling sick from infections.
Touted to help prevent prostate problems, this product contains a chemical related to sildenafil, a prescription-only medicine used to treat erectile dysfunction.
Using it without proper medical supervision can cause decreased or loss of vision and hearing, low blood pressure and cardiovascular events such as heart attacks.
The ingredient is risky for people with heart-related problems.
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Both products contain dexamethasone, a potent steroid that should be used only under strict medical supervision. These products claim to be able to treat several chronic ailments, such as arthritis, liver disorders, high blood pressure, diabetes and stroke.
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These capsules contain dexamethasone. A woman in her 40s gained weight rapidly after taking them to relieve an itchy skin condition.
Her face also became puffy. She was later diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, which is characterised by a "moon face" and upper-body obesity with thin limbs.
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This product, which also contains dexamethasone, claims to treat rheumatic joint pain, backache and numbness of the limbs.
A man in his 70s was hospitalised for Cushing's syndrome for over a week after taking this product for lower limb weakness.