Who are Malaysia's bumiputera?

Malaysia's bumiputera include (above) the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays (far left) and the Kayans from Sarawak (left).
Malaysia's bumiputera include (above) the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays and the Kayans from Sarawak.PHOTOS: BERNAMA, BH FILE
Malaysia's bumiputera include (above) the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays (far left) and the Kayans from Sarawak (left).
Malaysia's bumiputera include the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays (above) and the Kayans from Sarawak.PHOTOS: BERNAMA, BH FILE
Malaysia's bumiputera include (above) the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays (far left) and the Kayans from Sarawak (left).
Malaysia's bumiputera include the Orang Asli from the Jahai tribe, the Malays and the Kayans from Sarawak (above).PHOTOS: BERNAMA, BH FILE

Out of Malaysia's 28.7 million citizens today, 68.8 per cent are bumiputera, according to government data last month.

Below are those considered the country's indigenous races, based on a guidebook by the country's Higher Education Ministry.

Malaysia's total population including foreigners is 32 million.

Malays form the bulk of the bumiputera. The last public data on the total number of Malays was 14.2 million in 2015, or 54.6 per cent out of the 26 million Malaysian citizens then, according to government data.

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The other bumiputera races in 2015 totalled just over three million people, or 11.5 per cent.

•Malay: A child is considered to be bumiputera if one of the parents is a Muslim Malay, as stated in the Constitution. The Federal Constitution defines a Malay as a person who professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks Malay, conforms to Malay customs and is the child of a Malaysian parent.

•Orang Asli : The natives of Peninsular Malaysia, they number over 150,000. Consisting of 18 tribes, most live in rural areas with 34 per cent of their households categorised as poor.

•Sabah natives: Based on the Constitution, Sabah natives with at least one parent of an indigenous race in Sabah. The indigenous groups in Sabah include Kadazans, Dusuns, Bajaus and Suluks.

•Sarawak natives: Malaysians with both parents who are of an indigenous race in Sarawak. They include Ibans, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu, Melanaus, Penans and Malays.

Trinna Leong

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on August 03, 2017, with the headline 'Who are Malaysia's bumiputera?'. Print Edition | Subscribe