Myanmar's timeline as it rises from the ashes

People queue to cast their vote at a polling station in Yangon on Nov 8, 2015.
People queue to cast their vote at a polling station in Yangon on Nov 8, 2015. PHOTO: AFP

Yangon (AFP) - The eyes of the world are on Myanmar on Sunday (Oct 8) as the once-pariah nation votes in general elections being contested by Ms Aung San Suu Kyi's opposition for the first time in 25 years.

Here is a timeline of a nation that threw off the shackles of colonialism only to plunge into a dictatorship whose shadow it is just now beginning to emerge from.

- 1885 - Centuries of rule by a Buddhist monarchy ends with the defeat and exile of Burma's last king by the British. A lengthy period of Western colonialism begins and Burma (as it was then known) becomes a province of British India.

- 1941-1945 - Japan occupies Burma during World War II. Nationalist hero Aung San fights with the Japanese, but turns against them in the closing stages of the war, joining the Allied counter-offensive in the hope of achieving independence.

His daughter Aung San Suu Kyi, who would go on to lead the pro-democracy movement, is born in 1945.

- 1948 - Burma attains full independence from the British on Jan 4, a dream Aung San never lived to see following his assassination months earlier.

- 1962 - After years of factional infighting among Burma's political leaders - including a general election in 1960 - General Ne Win seizes power in a coup, turning the country from a multi-party federal union into an authoritarian one-party state ordered to follow his "Burmese Path to Socialism".

- 1988 - Disastrous economic mismanagement and political repression see Burma erupt in protest. The military responds brutally, killing an estimated 3,000 people. Ms Suu Kyi emerges as a key opposition leader.

- 1989 - The junta changes the country's name to Myanmar.

- 1990 - Ms Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) wins a landslide victory in elections but the result is ignored by the military who launch a new crackdown. Ms Suu Kyi is placed under house arrest, where she will spend most of the next 20 years. Many other opposition leaders are jailed or flee.

- 1991 - Ms Suu Kyi wins the Nobel Peace Prize while under house arrest.

- 1992 - Than Shwe becomes the new junta chief.

- 2005 - A new isolated city Naypyidaw ("Abode of Kings") is revealed as the country's capital after being built in secret by the paranoid junta.

- 2007 - Major protests dubbed the "Saffron revolution" break out over the summer, partially led by Buddhist monks. The junta eventually responds once more with violence, killing scores of protesters.

- 2008 - Vast swathes of the Irrawaddy Delta are devastated by Cyclone Nargis, which leaves some 138,000 people dead. The junta's lacklustre response and resistance to international offers of help draws widespread criticism.

- 2010 - The junta holds elections in early November and the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) claims victory. The NLD and many other parties refuse to take part. Observers do not consider the poll free or fair.

Less than a week after the election, Ms Suu Kyi is released after spending 15 of the last 20 years under house arrest.

- 2011 - In a surprise move, the junta relinquishes power to a quasi-civilian government under former general Thein Sein who pursues reforms.

Many basic rights are restored, including the lifting of restrictions on assembly and expression, while hundreds of political prisoners are freed.

A ceasefire collapses in northern Kachin state and fighting resumes forcing tens of thousands to flee from their homes.

- 2012 - The NLD wins 43 out of 45 seats in April by-elections. Ms Suu Kyi becomes an MP. The United States, European Union liftssanctions and Western businesses start flocking to the country.

Sectarian violence flares in western Rakhine state, mainly aimed at the Rohingya Muslim minority. In November, Mr Barack Obama the first US president to visit Myanmar.

Anti-Muslim violence again erupts, this time in the central town of Meiktila, killing 43.

- 2015 - Campaigning begins for crunch polls.