SPECIAL REPORT

China's toxic mindset

GROUND ZERO: The destruction spanned an area 3km in radius, leaving a large hole in the ground where the explosions took place (above) .
GROUND ZERO: The destruction spanned an area 3km in radius, leaving a large hole in the ground where the explosions took place (above) . PHOTO: EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY
GROUND ZERO: The destruction spanned an area 3km in radius, leaving a large hole in the ground where the explosions took place (above) .
GROUND ZERO: The destruction spanned an area 3km in radius, leaving a large hole in the ground where the explosions took place (above) . PHOTO: AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
GROUND ZERO: A Chinese military team of nuclear and chemical experts began work last Friday at the site of the explosions in the city of Tianjin, state media said.
GROUND ZERO: A Chinese military team of nuclear and chemical experts began work last Friday at the site of the explosions in the city of Tianjin, state media said. PHOTO: XINHUA
DESTRUCTION: Shockwaves from the blasts blew a hole in the wall of an apartment near ground zero; an injured man among others evacuated to a temporary shelter; and a damaged apartment building near the site (above) .
DESTRUCTION: Shockwaves from the blasts blew a hole in the wall of an apartment near ground zero; an injured man among others evacuated to a temporary shelter; and a damaged apartment building near the site (above) . PHOTO: EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY
DESTRUCTION: Shockwaves from the blasts blew a hole in the wall of an apartment near ground zero (above); an injured man among others evacuated to a temporary shelter; and a damaged apartment building near the site.
DESTRUCTION: Shockwaves from the blasts blew a hole in the wall of an apartment near ground zero (above); an injured man among others evacuated to a temporary shelter; and a damaged apartment building near the site. PHOTO: AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
GROUND ZERO: (Left and far left) The destruction spanned an area 3km in radius, leaving a large hole in the ground where the explosions took place. (Below) A Chinese military team of nuclear and chemical experts began work last Friday at the site of
DESTRUCTION: Shockwaves from the blasts blew a hole in the wall of an apartment near ground zero; an injured man among others evacuated to a temporary shelter (above); and a damaged apartment building near the site. PHOTOS: EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY, AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
 REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin (above); a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site
REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin (above); a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled by the force of the blast; a melted car tyre; residents evacuated from buildings in the vicinity of the chemical warehouse with pictures of their injured neighbours at a rally demanding government compensation for their damaged homesPHOTO: AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
 REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet (above); a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site
REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet (above); a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled by the force of the blast; a melted car tyre; residents evacuated from buildings in the vicinity of the chemical warehouse with pictures of their injured neighbours at a rally demanding government compensation for their damaged homesPHOTO: AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
 REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled
REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled by the force of the blast (above); a melted car tyre; residents evacuated from buildings in the vicinity of the chemical warehouse with pictures of their injured neighbours at a rally demanding government compensation for their damaged homesPHOTO: EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY
 REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled
REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled by the force of the blast; a melted car tyre (above); residents evacuated from buildings in the vicinity of the chemical warehouse with pictures of their injured neighbours at a rally demanding government compensation for their damaged homesPHOTO: REUTERS
 REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled
REMNANTS OF THE INFERNO: A bloody handprint marks the wall of a building near the site of last week’s explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin; a fireman’s helmet; a fireproof door in an apartment building near the industrial site crumpled by the force of the blast; a melted car tyre; residents evacuated from buildings in the vicinity of the chemical warehouse with pictures of their injured neighbours at a rally demanding government compensation for their damaged homes (above).PHOTO: REUTERS

China's businesses must change the way they view industrial safety

Rescuers in protective suits are scrambling to clean up hundreds of tonnes of toxic cyanide at the site of explosions in the northern port city of Tianjin, and state-run media has criticised officials for their lack of transparency over the blasts that have killed 114.

The death toll is expected to rise as a further 70 people, mostly firemen, remain missing.

The fireball that tore through a warehouse storing hazardous chemicals last Wednesday night left behind a devastated landscape littered with incinerated cars, crumpled shipping containers and shattered windows on buildings several kilometres away hit by shockwaves from the blasts. As fears grow about air quality in the city, criticism in the press has mounted, with editorials fingering local officials for the slow release of information.

"During the first dozens of hours after the blasts, there was scant information offered by the Tianjin authorities," the Global Times said in an editorial. "A single slow reaction can lead to rumours running riot. And in turn, public confidence in the government will continue to fall."

China Daily's editorial noted that many questions remain to be answered. "When the entire site will be cleared up remains a question, and whether there is still any potential health threat from toxic gas in the air or contamination of the nearby environment remains to be determined," it said.

NOT WALKING THE TALK

"There is no shortage of legislation on workplace safety in China, the problem is it's simply not enforced on the ground."

MR GEOFFREY CROTHALL, a spokesman for Hong Kong-based China Labour Bulletin, which promotes workers' rights, on China's poor industrial safety record. Some 700 tonnes of cyanide were found to have been stored at the blast site when the warehouse was authorised to store only 24 tonnes of the substance

Officials yesterday promised to clear most of the toxic sodium cyanide at the periphery of the blast area by the end of the day.

The quality of the air and water in the nearby river is within safe standards, they said at a press conference, even as some 200 residents gathered outside the venue demanding compensation for their damaged homes.

The Tianjin disaster is just the latest in a string of deadly industrial accidents in China occurring against the backdrop of three decades of frenetic economic growth which has left workplace safety standards struggling to keep up.

As recently as last month, 15 people were killed and more than a dozen injured when an illegal fireworks warehouse exploded in northern Hebei province.

Top Chinese leaders have repeatedly demanded that safety issues be tackled but such calls have gained little ground on the factory floor. Last Saturday, President Xi Jinping, for instance, urged the authorities to learn from the "extremely profound" lessons paid for with blood from the Tianjin blasts which, besides killing 114, have also caused injuries to more than 700 people. It could turn out to be an expensive tragedy, with media reports estimating insurance claims of up to 10 billion yuan (S$2.2 billion).

  • RECENT INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN CHINA

  • JULY 2015: 15 people were killed and more than a dozen injured when an illegal fireworks warehouse exploded in the northern province of Hebei. The blast even shattered windows of a factory about 1kmaway, said the Xinhua news agency.

    NOVEMBER 2014: A fire at a food packaging plant in Shandong province killed at least 18 workers and injured 13. The blaze destroyed 1,500 sqmof the factory. A preliminary investigation showed a faulty freezer caused the blast, Xinhua reported.

    AUGUST 2014: An explosion at a car parts factory in Jiangsu province killed at least 146 people. The State Administration of Work Safety found the factory lacked adequate ventilation or equipment to clear the high concentration of dust that led to the blast. The factory had been warned about dust several times before the accident.

    NOVEMBER 2013: A pipeline explosion at state-owned oil refiner Sinopec’s facility in the eastern port of Qingdao killed 62 people and injured 136. Unacceptable oil pipeline design, inadequate supervision and handling were among factors blamed for the blast.

    JUNE 2013: Some 120 people died and 54 were injured when a huge fire broke out at a poultry plant in Jilin province. The blaze was said to have been caused by an ammonia leak, and the high number of deaths was attributed to the fact that many of the exits were locked, thereby cutting off any possible emergency escape routes.

But Mr Xi's call is not new. He had similarly pressed for efforts to resolve China's "deep-rooted" safety issues in June 2013 after some 120 people died when a fire broke out at a poultry plant in northern Jilin province.

Experts say despite high-level attention to the issue, workplace safety continues to be a problem in China because of poor enforcement of safety regulations and lax controls over inspections and training.

While many workplace safety rules exist, they are not strictly enforced, partly due to corruption that allows business owners to evade regulations in pursuit of profit, according to the experts.

Mr He Shusheng, a Tianjin vice-mayor, told a news conference "around 700 tonnes" of sodium cyanide were stored at the warehouse where the blasts took place, significantly more than it was authorised to do so. The Beijing News, citing storage plans it had seen, said the warehouse was authorised to hold only 24 tonnes of the substance.

Mr Li Qiang, founder of China Labour Watch, told The Straits Times that properly ensuring workplace safety will significantly raise a firm's cost. "The penalties of safety violations are also not severe in China. Many businesses just hope to be lucky and escape having industrial accidents," he said. "The enforcement by local governments is another issue; in many cases, firms simply pay the fines and are able to pass safety inspections."

And Mr Geoffrey Crothall, a spokesman for Hong Kong-based China Labour Bulletin which promotes workers' rights, pointed out: "There is no shortage of legislation on workplace safety in China, the problem is it's simply not enforced on the ground."

There are rules, for instance, for machine inspection, safe operation, and even upper levels for labour intensity to prevent injuries from overwork.

Statistically, there seems to have been some improvement in the area of work safety, although overall numbers remain shocking. Figures from the State Administration of Work Safety show that in the first six months of this year there were 139,000 industrial accidents and 26,000 deaths. This is a 7.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent decrease respectively, from the same period last year - but it is still an average of 143 workers killed daily.

China is the world's largest producer of coal and in this sector there has been notable progress. Accidents in Chinese coal mines killed 931 people last year, according to official figures, down from 7,000 in 2002 as the consolidation of the industry led to many small mines being closed.

China's top prosecutor has opened an investigation into the Tianjin blasts, which have reignited the debate about safety standards in the country. Experts say simply passing more laws will not solve the problem. Rather, a change in mindset is sorely needed.

"The only way to improve safety is to make it a priority in the workplace, to create a culture where employers, employees and regulators all stress the importance of safety over the blind pursuit of profit," Mr Crothall told The Straits Times.

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on August 18, 2015, with the headline 'Toxic mindset'. Print Edition | Subscribe